By John E. Herman
In 1200, what's now southwest China--Guizhou, Yunnan, and the southern component of Sichuan used to be domestic to an collection of strikingly diversified cultures and governed by means of a mess of political entities. by means of 1750, China's army, political, sociocultural, and fiscal associations have been firmly accountable for the zone, and plenty of of the area's cultures have been quickly changing into extinct. One function of this ebook is to check how China's 3 overdue imperial dynasties--the Yuan, Ming, and Qing--conquered, colonized, and assumed keep watch over of the southwest. one other target is to spotlight the indigenous reaction to China's colonization of the southwest, quite that of the Nasu Yi humans of western Guizhou and japanese Yunnan, the one team to depart an intensive written checklist.
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Extra resources for Amid the Clouds and Mist: China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200-1700
Both men and women wear cattle and sheep hides [as clothing] . . 39 . Fan noted that the wuman showed great respect for their ancestors and were awed by malevolent spirits inhabiting nature's mountains and rivers. 40 Tang officials identi fied the paramount leader of the wuman as the "great spirit master" (da guizhu), whereas branches of the main patrilineal clan were led by "mi nor spirit masters" (xiao guizhu)Y "Each year," Fan tells us, "every A Southern Kingdom, Mu'ege 35 household is expected to bring oxen and sheep to the spirit master's resi dence to be offered as sacrifice.
44 To punish the Tang for its impropriety, Shilong ordered his finest troops to strike deep into China. Nanzhao forces attacked the Qian zhong circuit, pushing as far north as the town of Bozhou (modem Zunyi). The rapid thrust into Qianzhong exposed the fragile nature of the Tang defense network, four dependent kingdoms, seven Zangge clans, and countless haltered-and-bridled prefectures. When Tang offi cials discovered the attacking Nanzhao army included soldiers from each element of the Tang defensive network of allies, their doubts were confirmed and the betrayal was obvious.
According to Christopher I. 2o These alliances ex tended Tibetan rule to the Tarim Basin in the west, to western portions of present-day Gansu and Sichuan provinces in the east, and to parts of northwest Yunnan in the south. Tibet, Beckwith argues, was clearly the aggressor throughout much of Central Eurasia at this time, and Tang China, despite its own political and cultural preeminence, was forced to regard Tibet as a military equal. War between Tang China and Tibet seemed unavoidable. During the first half of the eighth century, hostilities between Tibet and Tang China spilled into the southwest.