ABC of obesity by Naveed Sattar; Mike Lean

By Naveed Sattar; Mike Lean

Weight problems is a highly pricey and extending challenge around the world, resulting in incapacity, reproductive difficulties, melancholy and sped up metabolic and vascular ailments in a wide share of fellows, girls and kids. The ABC of Obesity is a brand new advisor on the way to reduction its powerful administration, addressing matters equivalent to weight loss diet, workout, self worth, drug therapy and surgical procedure. contemporary proof is used to focus on widespread difficulties, profitable treatments, and the commonest causes.

Written by way of major specialists, it is a commonly obtainable textual content and an vital consultant for all normal practitioners, junior medical professionals, nurses, and different healthcare execs who're eager about the therapy and study of this universal situation

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Obesity 2006;14:1392-401. 23 7 Risk factors for diabetes and coronary heart disease Sarah H Wild, Christopher D Byrne 120 100 80 60 40 20 ≥3 5 <2 2 22 -2 2. 9 23 -2 3. 9 24 -2 4. 9 25 -2 6. 9 27 -2 8. 9 29 -3 0. 9 31 -3 2. 9 33 -3 4. 9 0 Body mass index at follow-up Body mass index at follow-up and relative risk for type 2 diabetes in participants in nurses’ health study. 9 <25 100 80 60 40 20 0 25-44 ≥65 45-64 Age at diagnosis (years) Distribution of body mass index in people with diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in past two years, by age at diagnosis (based on 371, 1466, 1302 people aged 25-44, 45-64, and ≥65 respectively at diagnosis, in population based diabetes register in Lothian, Scotland) Increase in mean systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) Many cross sectional and prospective studies have confirmed the association between obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Adapted from Kenchaiah et al (see Further Reading box) Survival in obese patients with heart failure x An apparent survival advantage associated with higher body mass index in patients with heart failure does not mean that obesity is protective. Rather, a combination of earlier presentation of heart failure in obese subjects (due to symptoms at less severe levels of heart failure) and possibly reverse causality (non-purposeful weight loss in patients with heart failure who have a lower BMI associated with worse prognosis) may partly explain this “obesity paradox” x Purposeful weight loss in heart failure patients with morbid obesity has been associated with improvements in systolic and diastolic function and in heart failure severity x However, sufficiently powered randomised trials are needed to establish the effectiveness of weight reduction programmes in obese heart failure patients in relation to event-free survival Obesity is also associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, and sudden death.

A study of trends in obesity in Texas found that, although smoking cessation was associated with weight gain, the contribution of smoking cessation to trends in overweight and obesity was small. The benefits of smoking cessation may be partly offset by weight gain, although, at least in women, this may not be associated with an increase in fat accumulation. National survey data from the US suggest that obesity has roughly the same association with chronic health conditions as does 20 years of ageing and that this is considerably greater than the effect of smoking.

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