# A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to by W. Gosling (auth.)

By W. Gosling (auth.)

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**Extra info for A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to Microelectronic Systems**

**Example text**

Amplifiers of this type are often called limiters. 10 Working point and biasing The amplifier transfer curves of Fig. 14 are still not completely general, in that the useable linear portions of the curve are more or less centred on the origin of co-ordinates. 5 it was shown that the useful working region for the tunnel diode was not centred at the origin, and this is also true for many other amplifying devices. 3, the circuit of which is shown in Fig. 15. The transistor, as usual, is in the common-emitter configuration.

Where k is Boltzmann's constant. s. voltage across the load is e",,! s. 1 The equivalent circuit of a noisy resistor connected to a noise-free matched load. e. ) Equivalent noise generators have properties which, although logical, seem a little odd at first sight. This is because the noise output is completely random in phase, frequency, and instantaneous amplitude. Thus iftwo noise generators are connected in series their outputs do not simply add. Both will generate currents through the load independently and in a completely uncorrelated way.

For large W Note that the gain is represented by an imaginary number (indicating a 90-degree phase lag of output relative to input) and is inversely proportional to frequency. This is the simplest kind of high-frequency characteristic encountered in practical amplifiers and is called a first order frequency response. Of course, the gain can fall as a higher inverse power of frequency (corresponding to second order, third order, and so on). More complex frequency response characteristics can be represented by a series of first-order amplifiers connected one following another (in cascade), so for the present consideration will be limited to simple first-order types.