A century of phugoid approximations by S. Pradeep

By S. Pradeep

Airplane layout 1 (1998) 89—104

It is acknowledged in such a lot flight dynamics texts that the phugoid approximations offer negative estimates whereas the quick interval approximations are exact. The survey during this paper finds that there are a minimum of 5 approximations to the phugoid. the level of departure of every of those from the precise worth is decided for a reasonably broad database representing numerous airplane in numerous flight stipulations. it truly is came across that almost all of them are insufficient in predicting the phugoid features appropriately. still, approximations to the phugoid frequency that appear to have remained left out are obvious to be exemplary. nevertheless, no precious approximation exists for the phugoid damping. With this heritage, a clean approximation for the phugoid mode is positioned forth herein. it's derived through equating the coefficients of the made from the fast interval equation (which has been proven to be very exact) and the phugoid equation (as but unknown) to the coefficients of the fourth-order attribute polynomial. the hot approximation is proven to be exact.

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The chart shows that the performance data usually quoted in aviation literature, probably based on company figures, bear little relationship to the truth. At Adlershof on 23 August, 1918, aircraft design engineers held a discussion on Junkers single-seater, fuselage framework made of open dural profile strip, before attachment of corrugated sheet metal skin. Zeppelin (Dornier) D I fuselage structure. has already been mentioned in the report on Zeppelin (Dornier) D I upper wing structure. 50 acceptable stresses and safety levels.

The Other Competitors. The principle of the standard fighter was inevitably watered down to some extent. It was not thought sensible to bet everything on the one power plant, and in any case the rotary engines had to be given a chance to realise their potential. In fact, quite large production runs of the Pfalz D VII or D VIII were planned, although production never got past the test series stage. In addition, according to the documents pertaining to the comparative flight tests, further series of 50 units of the following designs were also to be built: Rumpler D I with 160 hp D Ilia, LFG Roland D VI with 160 hp D Ilia and SSW D III with 160 hp Sh III.

The results of the competition were listed in order of climb times achieved, in two separate groups: air-cooled rotary engines and water-cooled stationary engines. As might be expected, the climb times of the aircraft with rotary engines was better than those with stationary engines. In the latter group the new highcompression 185 hp BMW Ilia, installed in an Albatros D Va, achieved the best climb times. Although neither the new Fokker V 11, nor the Fokker V 18 - a further improved version — produced the best climb performance among the aircraft equipped with the 160 hp Daimler D III engine, the Fokker V 11 was selected among the contestants in the competition.

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